# If you were collecting data on the above variables, which might you measure on a different scale? Which other scale could you use? Identifyone advantage and one disadvantage of measuring the variable in this way.

#### If you were collecting data on the above variables, which might you measure on a different scale? Which other scale could you use? Identifyone advantage and one disadvantage of measuring the variable in this way.

List the differences between narrative aggregated literature reviews and systematic reviews.

Nursing

Research Questions

QUESTION 1

List the differences between narrative aggregated literature reviews and systematic reviews

QUESTION 2

According to the Joanna Briggs Institute, what level of evidence would you ascribe to:

a) a randomised controlled trial

b) a cohort study

Explain why the levels of evidence are different.

QUESTION 3

a) Identify the appropriate measurement scale for each of the following:

Variable Measurement Scale

Annual birth rate

Body temperature

Education level

pH

Country of birth

Ranking of journals in a category according to impact factor

Presence or absence of infection

Age

b) If you were collecting data on the above variables, which might you measure on a different scale? Which other scale could you use? Identifyone advantage and one disadvantage of measuring the variable in this way.

QUESTION 4

A class of 30 students received the following marks (expressed as percentages) for their overall assessment.

Student Mark Student Mark Student Mark

Jessica 78 Amandeep 85 Mohammed 77

Jianxia 60 Louisa 60 Yaping 73

Mark 82 David 76 Tracey 73

Herlina 52 Rebecca 70 Abdul 85

James 35 Mavilde 88 Melanie 62

Emily 77 Elise 50 Robert 24

Ramon 64 Mishal 77 Nawal 77

Hawa 87 Caroline 62 Diana 52

Julia 50 Zara 80 Peter 40

Simon 76 Sunit 51 Wendy 84

a) Calculate:

i) The mean

ii) The median

iii) The mode

b) What inference can you make about the distribution of marks?

c) What would be the most appropriate measure of:

i) central tendency

ii) dispersion

d) Grades are allocated in the following way:

Fail = 0-49; Pass = 50-59; Credit = 60-69; Distinction = 70-79; High distinction = 80-100

Construct a frequency distribution of the students’ grades. You may present this in table or graphic form.

e) What measurement scale does this represent?

QUESTION 5

You purchase batteries for your kitchen clock. The batteries have a mean life of 820 hours, with a standard deviation of 30 hours.

a) The batteries run out after 715 hours. Would you be entitled to a refund? Why?

b) What if the battery died after 780 hours?

QUESTION 6

James works in a paediatric surgical ward, where the majority of children are admitted for elective surgery. He is concerned about the level of distress and anxiety children display on admission and the nursing staff, in conjunction with the Play Therapy department and child psychologists, develop a package to prepare pre-school children for their hospital experience. James wants to know whether this package will have an effect on children’s distress.

a) Generate a null hypothesis and an alternate (non-directional) hypothesis for James’s question

i) Null:

ii)Alternate:

b) What would be the ideal research design to answer this question? Give reasons.

c) What other design(s) could be used? Why might these be chosen in preference to the one identified above?

d) Identify the main ethical issue for this study.

James and his team carry out the study. They choose an objective measure of children’s distress – salivary cortisol, measured in mcg/dl and expected to be normally distributed.

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e) Identify:

i) the independent variable

ii) the dependent variable

f) What measurement will the researchers use to examine the effectiveness of the package?

g) What statistical test would be appropriate to test the hypothesis?

h) The test is performed and the result generated is p=0.03. Interpret the p-value.

i) What decision would you expect the researchers to make with respect to the null hypothesis?

QUESTION 7

Nurses in an aged care facility are concerned about the incidence of urinary tract infections (UTI) among residents. They wonder whether drinking cranberry juice daily will reduce the number of infections and plan a study to find out. They enrol 240 residents, 120 in each arm. At the end of the study they find that 22 residents who receive cranberry juice develop a UTI, compared with 31 in those who do not.

a) What would be the appropriate statistical test to determine whether this difference is significant?

From the figures we can see that the incidence of UTI in those receiving cranberry juice is 7.5% lower than in those not receiving it (this is called the Absolute Risk Reduction or ARR). The researchers calculate that the 95% confidence intervals around this number are -2.95 and 17.95.

b) Interpret the confidence intervals

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